Thursday, September 3, 2020

The Rationale of Equity Indexation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Rationale of Equity Indexation - Essay Example Capital market exchanges are considered productive without go-betweens aside from agents who set up purchasers and merchants and get a little commission, making the arrangement practically frictionless. With exchange costs insignificant, the main genuine factor that decides the current cost of a stock ought to be the net present estimation of its future incomes as profits and, expecting the organization keeps going long enough, capital increases when the stock is sold sometime not too far off. All things considered, a stock is nothing else except for a case to an organization's future incomes, and that its cost demonstrates its net present worth given the measure of money it would produce over a future timeframe (Graham, 1984). An organization's income is influenced by a few variables, for example, business possibilities, the board quality, the economy's general execution, and the organization's past presentation. On the off chance that these arrangements of data are known, registering with the expectation of complimentary income looks moderately direct, and utilizing a markdown rate, the stock's current worth can be handily determined. In the event that the market cost is lower than the current worth, the stock is purchased. Something else, in the event that one is holding the stock, it is sold. The low exchange expenses of capital markets... Beating the market implies that a financial specialist can't produce a pace of come back from putting resources into the values advertise that is over the pace of return of the entire market. The pace of return of the entire market is estimated by taking a gander at the paces of return of a bushel of values that is illustrative of the entire market of values. This container comprises of supplies of organizations of various sizes and from various industry parts from among the rundown of all organizations exchanged the capital market, say in the London Stock Exchange. Utilizing a recipe that considers showcase capitalisation, chronicled share costs, and different contemplations, the monetary specialists figure out which stocks to incorporate. The stock costs of these stocks in the crate are numerically meant thought of the file that mirrors the conduct of the market all in all. There are a few files figured for the London Stock Exchange by an ordering organization called FTSE Internati onal Ltd., a member of the Financial Times Ltd., a U.K.- based firm. Among the files checked by FTSE are the FTSE All-shares (688 stocks), FTSE 100 (102 stocks), FTSE (250 stocks), and the FTSE SmallCap (336 stocks) files (FTSE ASWB, 2005). Toward the finish of each exchanging day, FTSE includes the costs of the stocks in every one of these files and afterward distributes the outcomes. Under the supposition that the market is effective and that it is beyond the realm of imagination to expect to beat the business sectors, a speculator can choose to receive a value record procedure, which comprises of purchasing a bushel of stocks in a similar extent as they are remembered for the container of stocks used to compute a file. A few reserve the board firms have made the activity of contributing simpler by creating finances that

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Role of the Fool in King Lear Essay Example

Job of the Fool in King Lear Essay Shrewdness and understanding enables to bode well and to recognize or judge what is valid, right or enduring. Man isn't legitimate and his scholarly capacity isn't finished without being undermined with knowledge and understanding. In the play King Lear, William Shakespeare shows the excursion of the once lord of England as he goes wrong to despair.In his and unreliable state King Lear ventures out of his job by surrendering all his capacity, arrives at the pinnacle of frenzy and loses his life similarly as he comes to get it. The excursion of King Lear of accomplishing shrewdness and knowledge is essential as he gains from the hardships of taking silly activities before all else, advances by understanding his mix-ups and visual impairment, and additions intelligence and knowledge towards the end.In the start of King Lear, Lear ventures out of his job and takes absurd activities and loses all impact by succumbing to the deception that encompasses him. Lord Lear starts the play by mak ing the single, most absurd mix-up of isolating his realm and offering capacity to an inappropriate hands. The lords imprudent choice of division dependent on the little girl who proclaims the most love for him causes the defeat of the play and starts his dangerous incline towards frenzy. His activities are comprehended by all with the exception of himself as he poses the inquiry, Who is it that can reveal to me who I am? (I, IV, 226) and is given the answer, Lears shadow. (I, IV, 227).Furthermore, Lear is incognizant in regards to his two more seasoned little girls misleading promises of affection and is sufficiently silly to confide in them with his work. He esteems appearances over the real world and can't see the voracity and intentions of the individuals who are apparently nearest to him. Regan and Goneril are both ready to hoodwink him effectively, as Lear hears just what he needs. Additionally, King Lear rushes to judgment of banishing not just his most youthful and most dear est little girl, Cordelia, yet in addition one of his most faithful workers, Kent. He can't understand the truthfulness of Cordelias reverberated expressions of saying Nothing (I, I, 94) and afterward moves to strip her of his adoration and titles. Lears eruption and silly activities clearly show his getting old before turning out to be wise.As the plot of the play advances, the dolt goes about as aberrant manual for Lear who empowers him to comprehend his circumstance as he learns of his visual deficiency and franticness and the powers neutralizing him. Goneril and Regan outperform Lears edge for mental soundness and he is tossed out into the components and left to get himself. The numb-skulls first passage shows the quintessence of his reality in the play. Lears drop toward frenzy is indicated unequivocally when he cries, O fool, I will go frantic! The simpleton in a roundabout way drives the lord going about as inward inner voice of the ruler. He draws the ruler towards and a cas e of this is the point at which the bonehead shouts to the lord, Prithee, nuncleswim in.(III, IV, 113-114).The numb-skull uncovers truth and genuineness to all. The dolt shows the lord the mix-ups he makes as he communicates his contemplations about the choice the ruler made at the outset, I have own breeches. (I, IV, 169-171). The lord is heedless to this until the simpleton uncovers it to him. The simpleton tells the ruler that he would be a decent moron yet on the off chance that he was his imbecile he would have thee beaten for being old before they time. (I, V, 41). Through the guide of the bonehead going about as his internal still, small voice and uncovering truth the ruler comprehend and understands his own blindness.After being roused by the imbecile, Lear understands his freshly discovered knowledge, his capacity to see past appearances, and comprehend his errors. At long last, Lear is at long last ready to see how others have treated him. Through the fake preliminary he s ifts through all the abhorrence and understands all that occurred during the play. It is after the preliminary that the simpleton leaves the play as his activity is finished and the ruler can see unmistakably for himself. Lear communicates his understanding when he says, they complimented me like a dog(III, VI, 112-116). He understands his errors and second thoughts them.When Cordelia shows up he state, I ask sob notthey have not.(IV, VII, 81-85). Furthermore, he starts to see unmistakably of his environmental factors. His capacity to see is likewise apparent towards the end when he at long last perceives Kent. At long last Lear picks up astuteness and understanding, notwithstanding, ceases to exist of a messed up heart.King Lears excursion can be followed through his nonattendance of knowledge and knowledge which is supplanted with the essential job of the moron who permits the lord to return to rational soundness with an away from of his environmental factors. Through the play, Ki ng Lear, Shakespeare shows the need of the excursion for picking up understanding and knowledge. He depicts this in the job he provides for the blockhead of speaking to these two significant qualities.Human creatures will in general be confused by their misinterpretations and absence of information on their environmental factors. It isn't until they gain shrewdness and understanding that they start to see through an expansive and clear window. As is regularly done in all actuality, the life of King Lear is molded by his own hands and his failure to settle on the insightful choice toward its start.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Learn the Conjugations of Pluerer (to Cry) in French

Become familiar with the Conjugations of Pluerer (to Cry) in French The French verbâ pluererâ means to cry. At the point when you need to state he is crying in the current state or we cried in the past tense, the action word must be conjugated. A brisk exercise will acquaint you with the most straightforward structures ofâ pluerer, which you can read and remember for use in your discussions. The Basic Conjugations of Pleurer French action word conjugations may not be most French understudies most loved things to learn, however when you have an action word like pleurer, it is only somewhat simpler. That is on the grounds that this is an ordinary - er action word, which means it utilizes an exceptionally regular conjugation design. In the event that you have contemplated different action words such asâ quitterâ (to leave) orâ prã ©parerâ (to get ready), you can utilize what you realized for those and apply it here. The key is to discover the action word stem (or radical), which isâ pleur-. To that, you will add various endings to frame every conjugation. The endings you need are found in the diagram. You should simply combine the proper subject pronoun to the strained of your subject. For instance, I am crying isâ je pleureâ and we cried isâ nous pleurions. Present Future Defective je pleure pleurerai pleurais tu pleures pleureras pleurais il pleure pleurera pleurait nous pleurons pleurerons pleurions vous pleurez pleurerez pleuriez ils pleurent pleureront pleuraient The Present Participle of Pleurer Similarly as with most ordinary action words, theâ present participleâ ofâ pleurerâ is shaped with a - antâ ending. This structures the wordâ pleurant. Pleurerâ in the Compound Past Tense Theâ passã © compos㠩â is a compound past tense that is extremely normal in French. To shape it, you should conjugate avoirâ (an helper action word) into the current state. The past tense is suggested by theâ past participleâ pleurã ©, which is appended as far as possible. For instance, I cried isâ jai pleur㠩â and we cried isâ nous avons pleurã ©. Increasingly Simple Conjugations of Pleurer Among the other basic conjugations you may require are the subjunctive and the restrictive. The previous brings into question the demonstration of crying. The last says that somebody will possibly cry if something different occurs. On the off chance that you peruse or compose a lot of French, you may likewise needâ the passã © simpleâ andâ the defective subjunctive. These are abstract tenses and frequently utilized in formal composition. Subjunctive Contingent Pass Simple Defective Subjunctive je pleure pleurerais pleurai pleurasse tu pleures pleurerais pleuras pleurasses il pleure pleurerait pleura pleurt nous pleurions pleurerions pleurmes pleurassions vous pleuriez pleureriez pleurtes pleurassiez ils pleurent pleureraient pleurrent pleurassent At the point when you need to state Cry! in French, or some other short, truly direct expression, useâ the basic form. All custom is lost here, so theres no compelling reason to incorporate the subject pronoun. Basically state, Pleureâ ! Basic (tu) pleure (nous) pleurons (vous) pleurez

Tuesday, June 9, 2020

Use Of Systems Thinking In Implementing Organizational Change - 1650 Words

Use Of Systems Thinking In Implementing Organizational Change (Research Paper Sample) Content: Use of systems thinking in implementing organizational changeNameInstitutionMy study is focused on implementing organizational change using systems thinking in Microsoft Company.IntroductionSystems thinking is a structured procedure which emphasizes the need to examine problems accurately and efficiently before coming up with solutions and implementing them (Rosi, 2015). Systems thinking facilitates the effective examination of complexities as a way of testing peoples mental models and recognizing the leverage points. The approach allows for the discovery of the root causes of issues, and the accurate identification, tackling and improvement of leverage points thereby, creating positive effects that are reverberated throughout the system. To ensure accuracy in analyzing the problem and to ascertain a suitable leverage point, the stakeholders and the entire system should be involved in the process. Organizations are usually interconnected, and they possess various part s that interdependent and interrelated. Organizations usually rely on consumer feedback to correct their faults (Gorgidze, 2012).Systems approach usually depict the organizations as a complete framework whereby, a slight change in a single section affects the other sections or the whole organization. Successful leaders usually visualize the entire picture and accustom the existing trends, consequences, and patterns of action. These leaders are familiar with the specific environment in which a challenge, project or issue is operational. Systems thinking normally formalizes the procedure and gives a specific method for accessing the insight on the existing changes on the system (Caldwell, 2012). Systems thinking provides models and tools that assist the organization in examining complexities, recognizing the forces that interplay, viewing the behavioral patterns over time and generating effective solutions.Factors leading to the implementation of systems thinking in organizational cha ngeCertain factors may compel companies into implementing systems thinking in organizational change. These factors include budget cuts and financial constraints. There is an increased need to effectively use funds and to pool resources due to the significant constraints in the organizations budget. The cuts on a firms budget may lead to the consolidation of departments and service streamlining thereby leading to the need to comprehend the interdependence and interconnections of programs, structures, and services. The second factor is the ineffectiveness in managing crisis consistently (Nigam, Huising and Golden, 2016). There has been intense pressure on organizations to execute rapid changes due to the challenges that exist in the economy. However, quick fixes and jumping to conclusions may only lead to solutions that are a band-aid and are unnecessarily costly and typically ineffective.Organizations should be capable of solving the problems that they face other than jumping from on e crisis to the other consistently. Systems thinking gives room for a deeper and accurate way of examining the issues ensuring that the solution tackles the real problem, provides a lasting change and cuts down on costs. The last factor is the increase in complexity (Buono, Jamieson and Barnett, 2016). The increase in the complexities of issues being faced by organizations often creates numerous challenges in areas with multiple factors that are interconnected, and this makes it hard to fully understand the consequences of the recommended solutions. The organization may be exposed to the lack of integration when the company uses traditional approaches in problem-solving whereby, a single section of the framework is fixed at the expense of the other which will be fixed later. There is need to implement an approach that is capable of dealing the complexity and enhances the coordination of other structures of the organization.Issues that should be considered when implementing systems thinking in organizational changeThere are several issues that should be considered when implementing systems thinking in organizational change. These issues include the intensity of the disciplines knowledge and its specific tools. If the questioning line and structured tools executed to help comprehend the problem are unfamiliar by the majority of the staff, the learning curve will be steep. There would be the need for the leaders to comprehend the ways of managing the learning curve. There would also be an increased resistance and frustration due to the implemented change. Secondly, is the challenges that may arise in facilitating and managing the multifunctional teams (Rosi, 2015). The task of developing a team that is highly functional, a team that is inclusive of the management and staff, service providers and users, and all stakeholders is challenging. The task requires patience, active listening, expertise in the practice and theory regarding group dynamics and encouragement .To ensure the success of systems thinking, individuals facilitating and managing the process should discourage the group from blaming each other and guide them through the identification of trends the causes of the problems. Territorial tendencies, silo thinking, and the rapid identification and execution of solutions are obstacles that should be avoided to ensure the success of systems thinking. Lastly is the courage of viewing situations in an honest manner (Caldwell, 2012). Systems thinking requires one to admit to the fact that the companys institutionalized ways and the norms may be a major contributor to the problem at hand. However, during its execution, certain issues may arise, for instance, individuals glossing over issues that are sensitive, the attempt to disregard other peoples opinions and being defensive whenever the existing structures and procedures are being challenged. The need to overcome these challenges will enhance the effective implementation of systems thin king in organizational change.Specific goalTo improve the marketing Return of Investment (ROI) of the companyMeasurement of goalsThe improvement of marketing ROI will be measured using the following steps: The first step will be setting the Key (major) performance indicators of the company (Kogotsidis, 2012). The KPIs to be prioritized will be selected according to the companys aims. Secondly, a formula for analyzing marketing ROI will be created, that is, (the total generated revenue the total cost) / the total cost. Thirdly, a decision on the model of attribution will be made. Lastly, ROI will be measured against the already set targets.Implementation of the programThe implementation of the program using systems thinking will be done using the following steps: The first step will be to look for a chance or an opportunity. Here systems thinking will be applied to help us make sense of the messy situation (the marketing ROI) due to the need maximize the companys profits. Secondly, we will align the various factors that may affect the companys marketing ROI and determine ways in which they may be affecting the companys ROI. Thirdly, data will be generated. Data regarding the situation is very vital because different people usually have different assumptions that relate to the problem at hand, things that need to be changed and the process of fixing it. Due to the systems inherent complexity, and the bias nature of peoples views these assumptions are normally inaccurate and incomplete. Appropriate data collection assists in altering peoples assumptions. The data will then be analyzed systematically. Systematic analysis of data often integrates and legitimizes various perspectives.There are a variety of techniques that can help make sense of the complex and contradictory data. An understanding or comprehension and commitment will then be built from the analyzed data. Interventions will then be identified. Actual system transformations usually occur at various le vels; it usually begins with the intentions of the people to tackle problems that are complex systematically and to clarify the aligned outcome. Here, the identification and arrangement of the specific ways the marketing ROI structure could be redesigned to solve the issue are done. Lastly, the follow-through process will be implemented. Here, additional stakeholders will be engaged in the process of problem-solving. Short-term momentum will be built by executing certain policies, procedures, and perceptions in the organization and ensuring a continued understanding of the cha...

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Degeneration Theory In Ibsens A Dolls House - 2035 Words

Ibsen’s A Doll’s House is a naturalistic play set in the late 1800’s that features the ideas of debt, humanism/feminism, social reproduction, sexism, and Degeneration theory. Degeneration theory is an idea that when you deviate from the moral values of society or from the norm you develop a physical deformity that can be passed to you children and your family. It was used to control people’s behaviour so they would not deviate from social norms. Which William M Greenslade agrees with in his book Degeneration, culture and the novel: 1880-1940: â€Å"Degeneration is discursively activated to produce for example, typologies of ‘inclusion’ and ‘exclusion’. Regulating morality or sexuality entails not only repression (or indifference) but the active†¦show more content†¦Nora is one of the main characters in A Doll’s house and is a women struggling with the patriarchal values of the late 1800’s while also having internalized them so greatly her idea of freedom is what patriarchal society tells her she wants. She is labeled as a degenerate in the play due to her behaviour throughout the play which is considered morally bad because it goes against the values and expectations of the time. The first instant is a conversation between Dr. Rank and Nora with Mrs. Linde present: â€Å"Rank: See here, macaroons! I thought they were contraband here. Nora: Yes, but these are some that Kristine gave me.† (Ibsen, p.199). This first instance shows her behaviour going against the value of the time because she has lied to Dr. Rank about the origins of the macaroons which is considered morally wrong because you are not supposed to lie, especially a women. This impulsiveness to lie and to hide the true origins of the macaroons Nordau states is a symptom of being a degenerate: â€Å"The two psychological roots of moral insanity, in all its degrees of development are, firstly, unbounds egoism, and, sec ondly, impulsiveness i.e., inability to resist- sudden impulse to any deed.† (Nordau, p. 18-19). The most important instance that shows Ibsen was labeling Nora a degenerate is when it is revealed that Nora has committed fraud by signing her father’s signature on a loan agreement with Krogstad. This is morally wrong behaviour because not only did she fraudulently sign

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Comparative and Contrasting Essay on 20th Century Black...

A Comparative and Contrasting Essay on 20th Century Black Political Leaders: Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. And Malcolm X This essay will discuss Martin Luther King’s integration and assimilation in addition to Malcolm X’s separatism and Black Nationalism. Through Manning Marable’s assessment I will demonstrate that the ideological belief of Martin Luther King’s integration is a favourable representative of 20th century Black politics. The Civil Rights Movement symbolized the challenge and opposition to the racial injustices and segregation which had been engrained in American society for hundreds of years. Events that took place in the 1950s and 1960s, such as the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the March on Washington, sit-ins, speeches and†¦show more content†¦If the UN were to have put their hands in the Civil Rights Movement then blacks would have had a stronger case as the support of the UN would have created embarrassment for the American government. Another solution that Malcolm X proposed was the need for the re-education of black communities in the science of politics â€Å"we must understand the politics of our community. And we must know what politics is supposed to produce. We must know what part politics play in our lives...then whenever we get ready to cast our ballot, that ballot will be cast for a man of the community.† (Gates McKay, 1997, p.91) . If more blacks were to be educated in politics then black communities would be less likely to accept any part of segregation. Malcolm X had sensible analysis and solutions for the black problem but he needed the conservative side of Dr. King to dispel the view that black people are a bunch of hoodlums who would do anything for change. Dr. King’s philosophy imparted the view that black people were able to stand up for what they believed in without having to employ the use of violence to reach the end goal. Malcolm X argues that one reason why blacks are poorer is because they dont know where to spend their money. He states, â€Å"We h ave to educate our people into knowing that anytime you spend yourShow MoreRelatedOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 PagesDavid M. Scobey, Empire City: The Making and Meaning of the New York City Landscape Gerda Lerner, Fireweed: A Political Autobiography Allida M. Black, ed., Modern American Queer History Eric Sandweiss, St. Louis: The Evolution of an American Urban Landscape Sam Wineburg, Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts: Charting the Future of Teaching the Past Sharon Hartman Strom, Political Woman: Florence Luscomb and the Legacy of Radical Reform Michael Adas, ed., Agricultural and Pastoral SocietiesRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesEmotions from Faces? 124 S A L S A L 5 Personality and Values 131 Personality 133 What Is Personality? 133 †¢ The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 135 †¢ The Big Five Personality Model 136 †¢ Other Personality Traits Relevant to OB 139 x CONTENTS Values 144 The Importance of Values 144 †¢ Terminal versus Instrumental Values 144 †¢ Generational Values 145 Linking an Individual’s Personality and Values to the Workplace 148 Person–Job Fit 148 †¢ Person–Organization Fit 150 International

Power sharing free essay sample

Central Board of Secondary Education CLASS-X CBSE-i POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT I POWER SHARING TEACHERS’ MANUAL CBSE-i CLASS-X †¢ POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I †¢ Power Sharing TEACHERS MANUAL i Acknowledgements Conceptual Framework Shri G. Balasubramanian, Former Director (Acad), CBSE Ms. Abha Adams, Consultant, Step-by-Step School, Noida Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Director (Training), CBSE Advisory Shri Vineet Joshi, Chairman, CBSE Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Director (Training), CBSE Ideators: Classes IX and X Dr. Anju Srivastava Mr. N K Sehgal Dr. Uma Choudhary Ms. Anita Sharma Ms. Sarita Manuja Ms. Preeti Hans Ms.P Rajeshwary Ms. Suganda Vallli Ms. Varsha Seth Ms. Sunita Tanwar Ms. S Radha Mahalakshmi Ms. Neelima Sharma Prof. Chand Kiran Saluja Dr. Usha Sharma Ms. Renu Anand Dr. Rajesh Hassija Mr Mukesh Kumar Material Developers: Classes IX X English : Ms. Gayatri Khanna Ms. Renu Anand Ms. P Rajeshwary Ms. Sarabjit Kaur Hindi : Ms. Sunita Joshi Ms. Babita Singh Ms. Veena Sharma Mr. Akshya Kumar Dixit CORE-SEWA Ms. The nucleus of the entire process of constructing the curricular structure is the learner. The objective of the curriculum is to nurture learner autonomy, given the fact that every learner is unique. The learner has to understand, appreciate, protect and build on values, beliefs and traditional wisdom, make the necessary modifications, improvisations and additions wherever and whenever necessary. The recent scientific and technological advances have thrown open the gateways of knowledge at an astonishing pace. The speed and methods of assimilating knowledge have put forth many challenges to educators, forcing them to rethink their approaches for knowledge processing by their learners. In this context, it has become imperative for them to incorporate those skills which will enable young learners to becomelife long learners. The ability to stay current, to upgrade skills with emerging technologies, to understand the nuances involved in change management and the relevant life skills have to be a part of the learning domains of the global learners. The CBSE-i curriculum has taken cognizance of these requirements. The CBSE-i aims to carry forward the basic strength of the Indian system of education while promoting critical and creative thinking skills, effective communication skills, interpersonal and collaborative skills along with information and media skills. There is an inbuilt flexibility in the curriculum, as it provides a foundation and an extension curriculum, in all subject areas to cater to the different pace of learners. The CBSE introduced classes I and X in the session 2010-11 as a pilot project in schools. It was further extended to classes II, VI and X in the session 2011-12. In the seesion 2012-13, CBSE-i is going to enter in third year with classes III, VII and XI. The focus of CBSE-i is to ensure that the learner is stress-free and committed to active learning. The learner would be evaluated on a continuous and comprehensive basis consequent to the mutual interactions between the teacher and the learner. There are some nonevaluative components in the curriculum which CBSE-i TEACHERS MANUAL CLASS-X †¢ POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I †¢ Power Sharing iii would be commented upon by the teachers and the school. The objective of this part or the core of the curriculum is to scaffold the learning experiences and to relate tacit knowledge with formal knowledge. This would involve trans-disciplinary linkages that would form the core of the learning process. Perspectives, SEWA (Social Empowerment through Work and Action), Life Skills and Research would be the constituents of this Core. The Core skills are the most significant aspects of a learners holistic growth and learning curve. The International Curriculum has been designed keeping in view the foundations of the National Curricular Framework (NCF 2005) NCERT and the experience gathered by the Board over the last seven decades in imparting effective learning to millions of learners, many of whom are now global citizens. The Board does not interpret this development as an alternative to other curricula existing at the international level, but as an exercise in providing the much needed Indian leadership for global education at the school level. The International Curriculum would evolve building on learning experiences inside the classroom over a period of time. The Board while addressing the issues of empowerment with the help of the schools administering this system strongly recommends that practicing teachers become skillful learners on their own and also transfer their learning experiences to their peers through the interactive platforms provided by the Board. I profusely thank Shri G. Balasubramanian, former Director (Academics), CBSE, Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Director (Training) CBSE, Dr. Srijata Das, Education Officer CBSE along with all the Officers involved in the development and implementation of this material. The CBSE-i website enables all stakeholders to participate in this initiative through the discussion forums provided on the portal. Any further suggestions for modifying any part of this document are welcome. Vineet Joshi Chairman, CBSE CBSE-i CLASS-X †¢ POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I †¢ Power Sharing TEACHERS MANUAL CLASS-X POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I POWER SHARING CONTENTS l INTRODUCTION l POWER-SHARING: CONCEPT OF ACCOMODATION l NEED FOR POWER-SHARING l CASE STUDY: BELGIUM AND SRI LANKA l l l COMPARISON AND CONTRAST SOME OTHER EXAMPLES FORMS OF POWER SHARING l HORIZONTAL l VERTICAL l AMONG SOCIAL GROUPS l AMONG POLITICAL PARTIES, INTEREST GROUPS AND MOVEMENTS iv CBSE-i CLASS-X †¢ POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I †¢ Power Sharing TEACHERS MANUAL v POWER SHARING UNIT MATRIX TOPIC KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING APPLICATION Power Sharing : A concept Meaning and the ideology Sharing power = Gaining power Implementation in the family, society and political system Need for Power Sharing Requirements for which Power Sharing is desired Moral and Prudential Reasons l Case Study Political Systems of Belgium and Sri Lanka l How social differences turn into divisions l How accommodation leads to innovation and national integration Application of the principle in other cases like – USA, CANADA, LEBENON, INDIA etc. Forms of Power Sharing Power Sharing Arrangements at different levels and of various types Observation and Analysis of power sharing in Horizontal and vertical systems, among social groups and political parties Searching examples from the country of origin/residence Acceptance of diversity in real life l Aiming for national integration CBSE-i TEACHERS MANUAL CLASS-X †¢ POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I †¢ Power Sharing 1 SCOPE Democracy is the form of government which is essentially based on the principle of sharing political power among political parties of a Nation belonging to diverse ethnic as well as regional groups, majority community as well as minorities existing in the country. The purpose of this unit is to sensitize the students about the fact that all the Nations and societies have such diversities in their population. Even the countries which follow one language and one religion are not completely homogeneous, and have some or the other kind of demographic diversity. All these diverse groups, if given recognition and acceptance, contribute positively towards the growth and progress of their Nation. If not, then they may lead to civil strife. Therefore, it is required that we accept and accommodate such diversities and extend equal rights to them The unit also intends to create an understanding and appreciation among students regarding benefits of power sharing for the society along with the Nation. Students must realize that sharing political power is not an easy task as, whichever community is in majority in whichever country, it aspires to control political power and tends to impose its will on the entire population, many a times ignoring the interests of the minority communities. This is natural human behaviour which takes place even at the school, college, local and state level. Denial of acceptance and lack of accommodation of the diversity often results in disputes, conflicts and civil strife which are difficult to resolve. Power sharing thus becomes an important component of all the true democratic systems for ethical as well as practical reasons. It is the possible remedy for almost all the socio-political conflicts and basically promotes the idea of team work, constructive collaboration and peaceful co-existence instead of individual endeavour of a person, group or a community for the common collective good. There are various ways and forms in which power sharing can be exercised in different countries. This unit discusses four main forms out of them. WHY TEACH THIS UNIT? Modern world today is full of civil conflict. Except for a few countries almost every Nation is entangled in a conflict of one or the other kind among the majority and minority communities or varied ethnic and regional groups. Democracy is the possible solution to such problems, but only on the condition of sharing political power among the warring groups belonging to various regions and ethnic communities of the respective nations. Through the case study of Belgium and Sri Lanka, this unit will enable the students to not only understand the political systems of these countries but also to have an insight into their problems and ethnic conflicts. This will make the learners realize that hatred, rigidity and lack of political will to share power with the minorities and people from diverse backgrounds results in even more hatred and even a bigger conflict that may lead to disastrous CBSE-i TEACHERS MANUAL CLASS-X †¢ POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I †¢ Power Sharing 2 consequences. Students will realize that a country is the motherland/fatherland to both – the majority as well as the minority communities. Even if a communitys forefathers came from outside and were not the natives of the said country, the current generations have been born and brought up in the same country and live there permanently. They have their sentiments attached to this land and are culturally, historically and psychologically associated with it. Therefore, they have an equal right and claim over the Nation which should not be denied to them. Students will get to know various forms through which political power can be shared and peacefully exercised in a Democracy while accommodating various ethnic as well as regional diversities and accepting them as an integral part of countrys population. Moreover, todays children are going to be tomorrows political leaders, visionaries and statesmen. This unit will provide students with basic lessons in conflict management, problem solving and Nation building by power sharing; by involving all the stakeholders in the decision making who are also going to be affected by those decisions, not by appeasement, but by making them contribute constructively towards National policies and programs; by creating mutual trust, faith and harmony. LEARNING OBJECTIVES The unit will enable learners to: l Acquaint themselves with the political systems of Belgium and Sri Lanka and understand the challenges faced by them. l Familiarize students with the problems that arise in a country due to lack of power sharing. l Recognize the need for sharing political power in a democratic setup. l Understand the significance of power sharing through the case studies. l Critically examine various forms of power sharing in different democratic countries. TEACHERS NOTES I. This Unit has been structured in the following manner: Section 1 – This section deals with the idea and meaning of power sharing. It also discusses the need and requirement of power sharing for moral and prudential reasons. Section 2 – This part of the unit deals with the Case Study of Belgium and Sri Lanka, power sharing pattern in these countries, differences and similarities and CBSE-i TEACHERS MANUAL CLASS-X †¢ POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I †¢ Power Sharing 3 result of the policies followed in these countries with regard to accommodation of diversity. Section 3 – This section discusses four different forms of power sharing followed in various Democratic countries. II. The activities given in the unit are of two types – a) Warming up and fun activities b) Methodology/Strategy based activities Assessment criteria given for the worksheets can be followed for the assessment of activities as well. III. Power sharing is not always successful in every situation and has its own limitations. CBSE-i TEACHERS MANUAL CLASS-X †¢ POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I †¢ Power Sharing 4 INTRODUCTION In modern times, governing people with ethnic diversities, regional differences and a huge cultural variety is a challenging task. It takes enormous effort, determined political will and serious understanding on the part of the government in order to come to an equation with all the diverse groups and minorities of the Nation so as to govern them effectively, to be accepted and respected by all of them. POWER SHARING: A CONCEPT WARMING UP ACTIVITY l Ask the students to observe the given pictures and try to understand the ideas/messages which are being promoted commonly by all of them. l Let the students discuss and brainstorm on these ideas l All these pictures represent diversity and its acceptance as well as accommodation by others. The pictures also symbolize the ideas unity/ integrity, collaboration and team spirit. l Talk about the significance of all these issues in daily life and the political system of a country and relate them to the concept of POWER SHARING. CBSE-i TEACHERS MANUAL CLASS-X †¢ POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I †¢ Power Sharing 5 A Democratic system of governance is the possible solution to this problem, where the final political power rests in the hands of the people who elect their representatives from all the sections, classes, and categories of their society, and send them as representatives in the government to take important decisions on their behalf. A little imbalance in this situation can lead to conflicts, disputes, and socio-political strife, hence, an intelligent power sharing amongst the organs of the government at various levels, in various forms is seriously required. It is actually essential to the basic design of a Democracy to have power sharing among all its stakeholders and claimants of political power. Activity- II POWERPOINT PRESENTATION l Introduce the concept of Democracy and power sharing in the class. l Describe the meaning of important terms like ethnic diversity, social conflict, civil war, etc. l Prepare the room, if required, for showcasing the PowerPoint presentation, prepared beforehand l Play the presentation in parts, and pause in between to explain the important topics, one after another, with the help of brainstorming on power sharing as a concept and continue with class discussion. l In order of re-enforce the concept of power sharing, give examples from various countries (the ones mentioned in the student manual) and ask the students to note the important points in their notebooks as the presentation progresses. l Draw the attention of students towards the relation between power sharing and conflict resolution. l Ask the student to brainstorm amongst them for 15 minutes on the situation in Belgium and Sri Lanka and come up with their own suggestions and solutions. USE: Worksheet Number – 1,2,3,4 CBSE-i TEACHERS MANUAL CLASS-X †¢ POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I †¢ Power Sharing 6 POWER-SHARING : A Concept of accommodation : Power-sharing is a method, a powerful strategy for settling all kinds of conflicts, disputes, claims, regarding control and use of political power in a Democratic system. It is the most potential way out for resolving disputes over the issue of holding most powerful position in the political hierarchy. Instead of struggling and fighting over who should possess more political power and authority over the rest, power sharing depends and relies upon the joint exercise of political power. It promotes peaceful co-existence among diverse groups, ethnic Nationalities, and minority communities of a Democratic Nation and creates unity among them. Activity III l This picture is a game related to Indian Democracy. Observe it and try to find out what does it depict? l Does it relate to any kind of power sharing? Explain. USE: worksheet – 8 Source: www. johnbatchelorshow. com Power-sharing also allows the cross-cutting of socio-economic or cultural differences among the people and convinces them to put forward their conflicts demands and grievances in such a way that they become positive and constructive for the community and the Nation. This can be done in a variety of ways. CBSE-i TEACHERS MANUAL CLASS-X †¢ POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I †¢ Power Sharing 7 One possible approach is to grant autonomy to the diverse groups, regional or ethnic, over a few or all aspects of their own affairs. For instance, this freedom and autonomy can be restricted just to the cultural issues, i. e. , religion and education or it can be extended to cover-up the socio-economic, and the political fields as well. At the extreme level, power sharing can result in granting self-determination, and complete independence, allowing a minority group to establish its own sovereign Nation state. In this case, power-sharing finally leads to peaceful power-dividing. Another approach to accommodation and power-sharing is much more inclusive and integrative in nature. According to this approach, the task and responsibility of governance is shared by elected leaders from regional, lingual, ethnic or minority group within the country. They work jointly, cooperatively and more effectively for the making of better and acceptable decisions, for the resolution of even the most serious issues involving ethnic conflict, and socio-political strife. While exercising political power, taking important decisions and making public policies, they all are expected to be ethnically, and regionally neutral. This approach requires establishment of a well-structured free and fair electoral system which encourages multi-ethnic collaboration and coalition within the political system of the Nation. This generally leads to the establishment of Federalism. Implementation of either of the methodologies on power-sharing is quite challenging as the ethnic or regional groups holding political-power are usually unwilling to give up or relinquish this power. On the other hand, the groups devoid of this power tend to demand a substantial and considerable change in the system and claim a share in the exercise of political power, which the dominant group usually does not accept. Here begins the conflict, which at times, may lead to serious consequences. Rejection to power-sharing, and extension of autonomy, often creates social hatred, and civil discord, which is very difficult to deal with and resolve. However, if the ethnic or minority groups promote their demands, in such a way that they highlight joint benefit of all the communities, and focus on evolving a mutually acceptable method of achieving autonomy, and self-determination for all the groups, they are likely to be more successful in getting their demands fulfilled than they are, if they take a more aggressive or competitive approach. Need for power-sharing Civil conflict is like a curse for most of the countries of the world today, specifically the developing ones, which have huge ethnic and regional diversity, where these groups are even entangled in bloody wars or use violence to resolve the civil strife. This shatters the economy of the country and destabilizes its political system. Even in the countries which are peaceful, demand for the share in the political power is often made by the people belonging to the potential ethnic groups and political parties. Such demands, if ignored, can be fatal. CBSE-i TEACHERS MANUAL CLASS-X †¢ POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I †¢ Power Sharing 8 Besides this, globalization has added fuel to the problem as what happens in a Nation, in a particular part of the world, affects many other Nations – neighbouring or distant, that too at times in a drastic manner. Justified peaceful claims, violent uprisings, rebellions, and revolutions for a substantial share in the political hierarchy that emerge in one country are quick to be seen in many other countries, within a short span of time. In the modern era of highly advanced technology, where anything is possible – mass destruction, or mass construction, the modern developments in transportation, communication, education, and industrial advancement have exerted great pressure on the political organizations of the Democratic countries. A desire for progress, and growth, a good respectable standard of living, social-justice, cultural recognition, economic equality, growing awareness among people, regarding interdependence have led to the demand for political autonomy and self-determination among diverse communities of a country. People want governments to be more responsive to the citizens, and their needs, they desire even local and regional political units to give expression and recognition to their linguistic, religious, and cultural background, which provides the necessary basis and foundation for a community’s specific distinct identity. They don’t want this identity to be lost, or suppressed. In such a condition, the main objective of the political system of the Nation is not to eliminate diversity but rather to accommodate, reconcile, and manage socialdiversities in such a manner that they all feel important, being a part of the Nation, their interests are well taken care of, their cultural identity well secured, making them to develop a sense of belongingness, trust, and faith in the political system of the country. In other words, power sharing is the recommended remedy for such societies which are threatened by social conflicts. Thus, power sharing arrangements of the Democratic countries aim to reduce the risk of civil conflict by guaranteeing potential land prospective warring groups as well as parties, a positive role in the country’s government and further reducing the chances of political competition and rivalry. It also reduces the risk of people’s resort to violence; in case they don’t succeed in attaining political recognition, acknowledgement and respect as a result of Democratic elections. The major aim of powersharing is to assure that each of the serious claimants; stake holders and political parties get a significant, substantial benefit from cooperation and peaceful accommodation. Powersharing, thus helps in reducing the threat of a conflict by giving all potential parties (to any dispute), a share in peaceful cooperation, and a set of mutual agreements and assurances of social security, and the protection of their basic interests. Such arrangements are planned, well calculated and constitutionalized specifically to limit the ability of the majority community, a larger social group, or a party to misuse the political power or to exercise it for sectional or divisive purposes. So, on the basis of this discussion, we can conclude that power-sharing is genuinely desirable and is primarily required for two main reasons – moral and prudential. CBSE-i CLASS-X †¢ POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I †¢ Power Sharing TEACHERS MANUAL 9 Activity –IV INFER THE CARTOONS Source: www. ablueview. com These are the cartoons depicting a situation of deep concern in United States of America. l Observe each one of them carefully. l Try to find out the problem and its relation with the idea of power sharing and accommodation. l What could be the reason behind urban violence and involvement of youth in it? l Can you think of any other examples with similar kind of a problem? Explain. Use: worksheet 7, 10, and 11 Moral reasons Morally, power-sharing is the core essence of Democracy as Democracy cannot sustain in absence of power sharing. A Democratic rule is all about sharing power with all those people who are affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects. It is for this profound reason that power-sharing is required. People of a country belonging to any of the regions, areas, communities, or ethnic groups of the country have a right to be informed and consulted, on how they are going to be administered and governed. A legitimate government is peoples own government and is whole heartedly accepted by them. It creates such arrangements, situations and opportunities where citizens, through active participation, acquire a stake in the political system. These moral reasons highlight the very deed of power-sharing as important and essential. They are sufficient enough to justify its requirement. Prudential reasons The prudential reasons are based on careful calculation of gains and losses and are much more practical and logical. So, practically, power sharing is a good option because it reduces CBSE-i CLASS-X †¢ POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I †¢ Power Sharing TEACHERS MANUAL 10 the possibility of civil strife and socio-political conflict. Since, civil conflict generally leads to violence, loss of life and property as well as political instability; power sharing is a good approach to maintain mutual trust and reliance among the claimants of political power as well as the stakeholders and guarantees stability of the political system. Forcing upon the will of the majority community on rest of the minorities of the Nation and compelling them to abide by it may appear to be an attractive option in the short run, but in the long run it creates tension, mistrust and unrest among the citizens and undermines the unity and integrity of the of the Nation. Domination and suppression by majority is not just unfair, exploitative and torturous to the minority but it also brings decline as well as deterioration to the majority and the Nation as well. Hence, it is always judicious and sensible in a Democracy to embrace power sharing arrangement. Activity V COMPARE AND CONTRAST MATRIX SIMILARITIES DIFFERENCES l Divide the class into two groups and ask them to research upon political situation in Belgium and Sri Lanka. l Ask group A to look for similarities in the political system of the two countries and group B to look for differences. l With the help of student response, prepare a compare and contrast matrix on the class board and explain the case studies in detail. USE: Worksheet Number 5 CASE STUDY: BELGIUM AND SRILANKA BELGIUM Belgium is a small country located in the Western Europe, which has a small territory with a population little over one crore. Belgium has the Netherlands, France and Germany as its immediate neighbours, which also share a deep connection with the historical past of this country. This may be the reason which has made the ethnic composition of this country very complex. According to the demographic data, 59 percent of the Belgians speak Dutch and reside in the Fleming region in the North. Another 40 percent of them speak French and live in Walloonia region towards the south. Rest 1 percent of the Belgians speak German. The state of affairs is just opposite in the capital region of Brussels which has 80 percent of its population as French speakers and 20 percent as Dutch speakers. The majority community of the Nation is a minority in the National capital. Language is a major political issue in Belgium. The Flemings did not enjoy equal rights and status as the French speakers in the 19th and early 20th century. Actually, when in 1830 the CBSE-i TEACHERS MANUAL CLASS-X †¢ POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I †¢ Power Sharing 11 Nation was established under a census voting system, only around 1 percent of the adult population, comprised of the nobility, rich middle class and higher clergy could vote. All of whom were French, living in South Belgium, in the Walloonia region. A Flemish movement struggled peacefully in order to attain equal rights and was successful in achieving most of these. The Industrial Revolution that occurred in the late 18th and the 19th century further increased the rift between the Northern and the Southern parts of Belgium. French Walloonia experienced quick industrial boom and became economically prosperous and politically dominant. Dutch speaking people of the Flemish region remained limited to agriculture and other rural activities, hence did not develop industrially. Because of this they started getting economically and politically behind from the French speakers in Walloonia and Brussels, who were technologically much advanced, economically well off and politically stronger. This made minority French community relatively prosperous and influential, which was resented by the Dutch, the majority community of Belgium, who got the benefit of economic development quite late in the mid twentieth century after the Second World War. It was in 1950s that the Flanders saw economic boom, while Walloonia at that time came to an economic standstill. As the Flemings became educated, aware and economically sound, they started demanding a reasonable and an equal share in the exercise of political power. This led to emergence of tensions between the two communities. Lots of violence and unrest prevailed during 1950s and early 1960s. The problem became more serious in Brussels where the majority community of the Dutch speakers was in minority and minority community of the French speakers was in majority. SRILANKA Let us now compare this situation with the situation of another country, Sri Lanka, which is an island Nation situated in South Asia, just a few kilometres away from the southern coast of Tamil Nadu, a state in India. Its population is about two crore, which is quite varied and diverse in nature. The major communities of Sri Lanka are the Sinhala speakers known as the Sinhalese, who comprise 74 percent of the country’s total population, and the Tamil speakers, who form 18 percent of the population. Tamils are further divided into two sub groups; Sri Lankan Tamils or the native Tamils, 13percent and 5 percent Indian Tamils, whose forefathers were brought from India as plantation workers by the colonial British. Sri Lankan Tamils are concentrated in the North and the Eastern parts of the country and form majority in these areas, but on the other hand they are a minority in rest of the country. These Tamils are the followers of either Hinduism or Islam, whereas the majority community of the Sinhala follows Buddhism. There are about 7 percent Christians in Sri Lanka, who are both – Tamil and Sinhala. We can easily imagine what could happen in these two countries. The Dutch community, taking advantage of its majority in the population and ignoring the interests of minorities, CBSE-i TEACHERS MANUAL CLASS-X †¢ POLITICAL SCIENCE UNIT-I †¢ Power Sharing 12 could force its will on the French and the German people. It could grab the political power completely and use it for the promotion of its own interests and suppress the French and German speaking population. This would accentuate and aggravate the conflict among these communities further leading to bitter and painful disintegration of the country. Both the communities would scramble for control over Brussels. The same situation could take place in Sri Lanka where Sinhala community has much greater majority and could easily enforce its will on the entire population of the country. SRI LANKAN policy of Majoritarianism Sri Lanka achieved its independence from British colonial rule in the year 1948. As per the constitution, Sinhala community got an upper hand in the governance of the country, Indian Tamils were not given the citizen rights and Sri Lankan Tamils were given the status of a minority. Article 29(b) of the Sri Lankan constitution of 1948 gave special protection to them. For around seventeen centuries the Sinhala people continued to maintain historical awareness through various modes of transmission. The leaders of this community tried to sec